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Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Oct 25;56(14):2338-51. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2013.835303.

Ohmic Heating: Concept and Applications-A Review.

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a Department of Processing and Food Engineering , Punjab Agricultural University , Ludhiana , Punjab , India.


Ohmic heating, also known as Joule heating, electrical resistance heating, and direct electrical resistance heating, is a process of heating the food by passing electric current. In ohmic heating the energy is dissipated directly into the food. Electrical conductivity is a key parameter in the design of an effective ohmic heater. A large number of potential applications exist for ohmic heating, including blanching, evaporation, dehydration, fermentation, sterilization, pasteurization, and heating of foods. Beyond heating, applied electric field under ohmic heating causes electroporation of cell membranes, which increase extraction rates, and reduce gelatinization temperature and enthalpy. Ohmic heating results in faster heating of food along with maintenance of color and nutritional value of food. Water absorption index, water solubility index, thermal properties, and pasting properties are altered with the application of ohmic heating. Ohmic heating results in pre-gelatinized starches, which reduce energy requirement during processing. But its higher initial cost, lack of its applications in foods containing fats and oils, and less awareness limit its use.


Ohmic heating; electric field; electrical conductivity; electroporation; food

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