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Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(3):243-9. doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000157.

The role of the commensal microbiota in the regulation of tolerance to dietary allergens.

Author information

1
aDepartment of Translational Medical Science and European Laboratory for The Investigation of Food Induced Diseases and CEINGE Advanced Biotechnologies, University of Naples 'Federico II', Naples, Italy bInstitute for Genomic and Systems Biology, Biosciences Department, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne cDepartment of Ecology and Evolution dDepartment of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois eMarine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA fCollege of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China gCommittee on Immunology and Departments of Pathology, Medicine and The College, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

We review the evidence that environmental stimuli that perturb naturally selected host-microbe interactions are driving the increasing prevalence of food allergy and examine the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria regulate tolerance to dietary allergens.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Antibiotic use and the consumption of a high-fat/low-fiber diet have a major and rapid impact on gut bacterial populations, with long-term consequences for both overall microbial community structure and the regulation of host immunity. Recent work emphasizes the role of mucosa-associated commensal bacteria in eliciting a barrier-protective response critical to preventing allergic sensitization to food. Murine model studies are informing the development of novel live biotherapeutic approaches as an adjunctive therapy to enhance antigen-specific oral desensitization and to promote lasting tolerance in patients with food allergy.

SUMMARY:

Strategies based on modulating the composition and/or functionality of the gut microbiome hold promise for the treatment of food allergy.

PMID:
25827065
PMCID:
PMC4498960
DOI:
10.1097/ACI.0000000000000157
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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