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Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015 Jul;21(7):1674-82. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0000000000000364.

Beneficial Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, Synbiotics, and Psychobiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

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*Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; †Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany; and ‡Department of Neuropeptides, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the small and large intestine and primarily includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Although the etiology of IBD is not fully understood, it is believed to result from the interaction of genetic, immunological, and environmental factors, including gut microbiota. Recent studies have shown a correlation between changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and IBD. Moreover, it has been suggested that probiotics and prebiotics influence the balance of beneficial and detrimental bacterial species, and thereby determine homeostasis versus inflammatory conditions. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of the role of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics in functions of the gastrointestinal tract and the induction and maintenance of IBD remission. We also discuss the role of psychobiotics, which constitute a novel class of psychotropic agents that affect the central nervous system by influencing gut microbiota.

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