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Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 May;171:34-40. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2015.03.004. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

17α-Ethinylestradiol can disrupt hemoglobin catabolism in amphibians.

Author information

1
Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 301-310, 12587 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: garmshausen@igb-berlin.de.
2
Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 301-310, 12587 Berlin, Germany; Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Biology, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany.
3
Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 301-310, 12587 Berlin, Germany.

Abstract

Different chemical substances, which enter the environment due to anthropogenic influences, can affect the endocrine system and influence development and physiology of aquatic animals. One of these endocrine disrupting chemicals is the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), which is a main component of various oral contraceptives and demonstrably affects many different aquatic vertebrates at extremely low concentrations by feminization phenomena. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a four week exposure to three different concentrations of EE2 (0.3 ng/L, 29.6 ng/L and 2960 ng/L) affects the catabolism of hemoglobin of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that beside an increase of the hepatic vitellogenin gene expression, exposure to EE2 also decreases the gene expression of the hepatic heme oxygenase 1 and 2 (HO1, HO2), degrading heme of different heme proteins to biliverdin, as well as of the biliverdin reductase A (BLVRA), which converts biliverdin to bilirubin. The results further suggest that EE2 already at the environmentally relevant concentration of (29.6 ng/L) can disrupt hemoglobin catabolism, indicated by decreased gene expression of HO2, which becomes evident at the highest EE2 concentration that led to a severe increase of biliverdin in plasma.

KEYWORDS:

17α-ethinylestradiol; Endocrine disrupting chemicals; Xenopus laevis; biliverdin; biliverdin reductase; estrogen; heme oxygenase

PMID:
25819740
DOI:
10.1016/j.cbpc.2015.03.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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