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Environ Res. 2015 Jul;140:18-31. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2015.03.014. Epub 2015 Mar 29.

Phenotypic malignant changes and untargeted lipidomic analysis of long-term exposed prostate cancer cells to endocrine disruptors.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), c/ Jordi Girona 18-24, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: carmen.bedia@idaea.csic.es.
2
Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), c/ Jordi Girona 18-24, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: nuria.dalmau@idaea.csic.es.
3
Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), c/ Jordi Girona 18-24, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: joaquim.jaumot@idaea.csic.es.
4
Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), c/ Jordi Girona 18-24, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: roma.tauler@idaea.csic.es.

Abstract

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are a class of environmental toxic molecules able to interfere with the normal hormone metabolism. Numerous studies involve EDs exposure to initiation and development of cancers, including prostate cancer. In this work, three different EDs (aldrin, aroclor 1254 and chlorpyrifos (CPF)) were investigated as potential inducers of a malignant phenotype in DU145 prostate cancer cells after a chronic exposure. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction, proliferation, migration, colony formation and release of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) were analyzed in 50-day exposed cells to the selected EDs. As a result, aldrin and CPF exposure led to an EMT induction (loss of 16% and 14% of E-cadherin levels, respectively, compared to the unexposed cells). Aroclor and CPF presented an increased migration (134% and 126%, respectively), colony formation (204% and 144%, respectively) and MMP-2 release (137% in both cases) compared to the unexposed cells. An untargeted lipidomic analysis was performed to decipher the lipids involved in the observed transformations. As general results, aldrin exposure showed a global decrease in phospholipids and sphingolipids, and aroclor and CPF showed an increase of certain phospholipids, glycosphingolipids as well as a remarkable increase of some cardiolipin species. Furthermore, the three exposures resulted in an increase of some triglyceride species. In conclusion, some significant changes in lipids were identified and thus we postulate that some lipid compounds and lipid metabolic pathways could be involved in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype in exposed prostate cancer cells to the selected EDs.

KEYWORDS:

Chemometrics; Chronic exposure; Endocrine disruptors; Prostate cancer; Untargeted lipidomics

PMID:
25817993
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2015.03.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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