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Virology. 2015 May;479-480:146-52. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.03.013. Epub 2015 Mar 26.

Innate immune recognition of DNA: A recent history.

Author information

1
School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.
2
School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. Electronic address: agbowie@tcd.ie.

Abstract

Innate immune DNA sensing underpins many physiological and pathological responses to DNA, including anti-viral immunity to DNA viruses. Although it has been appreciated for many years that cytosolic DNA can evoke a type I interferon response, it is only within the past decade that the cellular mechanisms responsible for such a response have been defined. Here we review the discoveries that led to an appreciation of the existence of cytosolic DNA sensor proteins, and discuss two key such sensors, cGAS and IFI16, in detail. DNA sensors operate via STING, a protein shown to have a central role in controlling altered gene induction in response to DNA in vivo, and as such to be central to a rapidly expanding list of both protective and harmful responses to DNA. We also discuss recent insights into how and when DNA stimulates innate immunity, and highlight current outstanding questions in the DNA sensing field.

KEYWORDS:

DNA sensing; Gene induction; Herpes viruses; Innate immunity; Pattern recognition receptors

PMID:
25816762
PMCID:
PMC4424081
DOI:
10.1016/j.virol.2015.03.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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