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Phys Rev Lett. 2015 Mar 13;114(10):101301. Epub 2015 Mar 9.

Joint analysis of BICEP2/keck array and Planck Data.

Ade PA1, Aghanim N2, Ahmed Z3, Aikin RW4, Alexander KD5, Arnaud M6, Aumont J2, Baccigalupi C7, Banday AJ8,9, Barkats D10, Barreiro RB11, Bartlett JG12,13, Bartolo N14,15, Battaner E16,17, Benabed K18,19, Benoît A20, Benoit-Lévy A18,19,21, Benton SJ22, Bernard JP8,9, Bersanelli M23,24, Bielewicz P7,8,9, Bischoff CA5, Bock JJ4,13, Bonaldi A25, Bonavera L11, Bond JR26, Borrill J27,28, Bouchet FR18,29, Boulanger F2, Brevik JA4, Bucher M12, Buder I5, Bullock E30, Burigana C31,32,33, Butler RC31, Buza V5, Calabrese E34, Cardoso JF12,18,35, Catalano A36,37, Challinor A38,39,40, Chary RR41, Chiang HC42,43, Christensen PR44,45, Colombo LP13,46, Combet C36, Connors J5, Couchot F47, Coulais A37, Crill BP4,13, Curto A11,48, Cuttaia F31, Danese L7, Davies RD25, Davis RJ25, de Bernardis P49, de Rosa A31, de Zotti G7,50, Delabrouille J12, Delouis JM18,19, Désert FX51, Dickinson C25, Diego JM11, Dole H2,52, Donzelli S24, Doré O4,13, Douspis M2, Dowell CD13, Duband L53, Ducout A18,54, Dunkley J34, Dupac X55, Dvorkin C5, Efstathiou G38, Elsner F18,19,21, Enßlin TA56, Eriksen HK57, Falgarone E37, Filippini JP4,58, Finelli F31,33, Fliescher S59, Forni O8,9, Frailis M60, Fraisse AA42, Franceschi E31, Frejsel A44, Galeotta S60, Galli S18, Ganga K12, Ghosh T2, Giard M8,9, Gjerløw E57, Golwala SR4, González-Nuevo J7,11, Górski KM13,61, Gratton S38,39, Gregorio A60,62,63, Gruppuso A31, Gudmundsson JE42, Halpern M64, Hansen FK57, Hanson D13,26,65, Harrison DL38,39, Hasselfield M64, Helou G4, Henrot-Versillé S47, Herranz D11, Hildebrandt SR4,13, Hilton GC66, Hivon E18,19, Hobson M48, Holmes WA13, Hovest W56, Hristov VV4, Huffenberger KM67, Hui H4, Hurier G2, Irwin KD3,66,68, Jaffe AH54, Jaffe TR8,9, Jewell J13, Jones WC42, Juvela M69, Karakci A12, Karkare KS5, Kaufman JP70, Keating BG70, Kefeli S4, Keihänen E69, Kernasovskiy SA3, Keskitalo R27, Kisner TS71, Kneissl R72,73, Knoche J56, Knox L74, Kovac JM5, Krachmalnicoff N23, Kunz M2,75,76, Kuo CL3,68, Kurki-Suonio H69,77, Lagache G2,78, Lähteenmäki A77,79, Lamarre JM37, Lasenby A39,48, Lattanzi M32, Lawrence CR13, Leitch EM80, Leonardi R55, Levrier F37, Lewis A81, Liguori M14,15, Lilje PB57, Linden-Vørnle M82, López-Caniego M11,55, Lubin PM83, Lueker M4, Macías-Pérez JF36, Maffei B25, Maino D23,24, Mandolesi N31,32, Mangilli A2,47, Maris M60, Martin PG26, Martínez-González E11, Masi S49, Mason P4, Matarrese S14,15,84, Megerian KG13, Meinhold PR83, Melchiorri A49,85, Mendes L55, Mennella A23,24, Migliaccio M38,39, Mitra S13,86, Miville-Deschênes MA2,26, Moneti A18, Montier L8,9, Morgante G31, Mortlock D54, Moss A87, Munshi D1, Murphy JA88, Naselsky P44,45, Nati F42, Natoli P31,32,89, Netterfield CB90, Nguyen HT13, Nørgaard-Nielsen HU82, Noviello F25, Novikov D91, Novikov I44,91, O'Brient R13, Ogburn RW3,68, Orlando A70, Pagano L49,85, Pajot F2, Paladini R41, Paoletti D31,33, Partridge B92, Pasian F60, Patanchon G12, Pearson TJ4,41, Perdereau O47, Perotto L36, Pettorino V93, Piacentini F49, Piat M12, Pietrobon D13, Plaszczynski S47, Pointecouteau E8,9, Polenta G89,94, Ponthieu N2,51, Pratt GW6, Prunet S18,19, Pryke C30,59, Puget JL2, Rachen JP56,95, Reach WT96, Rebolo R97,98,99, Reinecke M56, Remazeilles M2,12,25, Renault C36, Renzi A100,101, Richter S5, Ristorcelli I8,9, Rocha G4,13, Rossetti M23,24, Roudier G12,13,37, Rowan-Robinson M54, Rubiño-Martín JA97,99, Rusholme B41, Sandri M31, Santos D36, Savelainen M69,77, Savini G102, Schwarz R59, Scott D64, Seiffert MD4,13, Sheehy CD59,103, Spencer LD1, Staniszewski ZK4,13, Stolyarov V39,48,104, Sudiwala R1, Sunyaev R56,105, Sutton D38,39, Suur-Uski AS69,77, Sygnet JF18, Tauber JA106, Teply GP4, Terenzi L31,107, Thompson KL3, Toffolatti L11,31,108, Tolan JE3, Tomasi M23,24, Tristram M47, Tucci M75, Turner AD13,80, Valenziano L31, Valiviita J69,77, Van Tent B109, Vibert L2, Vielva P11, Vieregg AG103,110, Villa F31, Wade LA13, Wandelt BD18,19,58, Watson R25, Weber AC13, Wehus IK13, White M111, White SD56, Willmert J59, Wong CL5, Yoon KW3,68, Yvon D112, Zacchei A60, Zonca A83; (BICEP2/Keck and Planck Collaborations).

Author information

1
School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA, United Kingdom.
2
Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS (UMR8617) Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 121, Orsay, France.
3
Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
4
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA.
5
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS 42, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.
6
Laboratoire AIM, IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique-CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Bâtiment 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.
7
SISSA, Astrophysics Sector, via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste, Italy.
8
Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4, France.
9
CNRS, IRAP, 9 Avenue colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4, France.
10
Joint ALMA Observatory, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile.
11
Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria), Avenida de los Castros s/n, Santander, Spain.
12
APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13, France.
13
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California, USA.
14
Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova, Italy.
15
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova, Italy.
16
University of Granada, Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Facultad de Ciencias, Granada, Spain.
17
University of Granada, Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Granada, Spain.
18
Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS (UMR7095), 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014, Paris, France.
19
UPMC Université de Paris 06, UMR7095, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014, Paris, France.
20
Institut Néel, CNRS, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble I, 25 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
21
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
22
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada.
23
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria, 16, Milano, Italy.
24
INAF/IASF Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, Milano, Italy.
25
Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom.
26
CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8, Canada.
27
Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA.
28
Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.
29
Sorbonne Université-UPMC, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014, Paris, France.
30
Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.
31
INAF/IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy.
32
Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara, Italy.
33
INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126, Bologna, Italy.
34
Sub-Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, United Kingdom.
35
Laboratoire Traitement et Communication de l'Information, CNRS (UMR 5141) and Télécom ParisTech, 46 rue Barrault F-75634 Paris Cedex 13, France.
36
Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex, France.
37
LERMA, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l'Observatoire, Paris, France.
38
Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, United Kingdom.
39
Kavli Institute for Cosmology Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA, United Kingdom.
40
Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, United Kingdom.
41
Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.
42
Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
43
Astrophysics & Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics & Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa.
44
Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen, Denmark.
45
Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen, Denmark.
46
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dana and David Dornsife College of Letter, Arts and Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA.
47
LAL, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay, France.
48
Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom.
49
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Roma, Italy.
50
INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, Padova, Italy.
51
IPAG: Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
52
Institut Universitaire de France, 103, bd Saint-Michel, 75005, Paris, France.
53
Service des Basses Températures, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, 38054 Grenoble, France.
54
Imperial College London, Astrophysics group, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.
55
European Space Agency, ESAC, Planck Science Office, Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain.
56
Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, 85741 Garching, Germany.
57
Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Blindern, Oslo, Norway.
58
Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
59
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.
60
INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, Trieste, Italy.
61
Warsaw University Observatory, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland.
62
Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Trieste, via Alfonso Valerio 2, Trieste, Italy.
63
INFN/National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
64
Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
65
McGill Physics, Ernest Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, Quebec, H3A 2T8, Canada.
66
National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA.
67
Department of Physics, Florida State University, Keen Physics Building, 77 Chieftan Way, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.
68
Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA.
69
Department of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
70
Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.
71
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA.
72
European Southern Observatory, ESO Vitacura, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago, Chile.
73
Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, ALMA Santiago Central Offices, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 763 0355, Santiago, Chile.
74
Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California, USA.
75
Département de Physique Théorique, Université de Genève, 24, Quai E. Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland.
76
African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town, South Africa.
77
Helsinki Institute of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
78
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, France.
79
Aalto University Metsähovi Radio Observatory and Department of Radio Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 13000, FI-00076 AALTO, Finland.
80
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
81
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, United Kingdom.
82
DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
83
Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA.
84
Gran Sasso Science Institute, INFN, viale F. Crispi 7, 67100L'Aquila, Italy.
85
INFN, Sezione di Roma 1, Università di Roma Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Roma, Italy.
86
IUCAA, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Pune 411 007, India.
87
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom.
88
National University of Ireland, Department of Experimental Physics, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland.
89
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana Science Data Center, Via del Politecnico snc, 00133, Roma, Italy.
90
Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
91
Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Astro Space Centre, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya st., Moscow, GSP-7, 117997, Russia.
92
Haverford College Astronomy Department, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, Pennsylvania, USA.
93
HGSFP and University of Heidelberg, Theoretical Physics Department, Philosophenweg 16, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
94
INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy.
95
Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
96
Universities Space Research Association, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, California 94035, USA.
97
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
98
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
99
Departamento Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
100
Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Roma, Italy.
101
INFN, Sezione di Roma 2, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Roma, Italy.
102
Optical Science Laboratory, University College London, Gower Street, London, United Kingdom.
103
Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
104
Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Zelenchukskiy region, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic, 369167, Russia.
105
Space Research Institute (IKI), Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya Street, 84/32, Moscow, 117997, Russia.
106
European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
107
Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi e-Campus, Via Isimbardi 10, Novedrate (CO), 22060, Italy.
108
Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Avda. Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo, Spain.
109
Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Université Paris-Sud 11 & CNRS, Bâtiment 210, 91405 Orsay, France.
110
Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
111
Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.
112
DSM/Irfu/SPP, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.

Abstract

We report the results of a joint analysis of data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck. BICEP2 and Keck Array have observed the same approximately 400  deg^{2} patch of sky centered on RA 0 h, Dec. -57.5°. The combined maps reach a depth of 57 nK deg in Stokes Q and U in a band centered at 150 GHz. Planck has observed the full sky in polarization at seven frequencies from 30 to 353 GHz, but much less deeply in any given region (1.2  μK deg in Q and U at 143 GHz). We detect 150×353 cross-correlation in B modes at high significance. We fit the single- and cross-frequency power spectra at frequencies ≥150  GHz to a lensed-ΛCDM model that includes dust and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r), using a prior on the frequency spectral behavior of polarized dust emission from previous Planck analysis of other regions of the sky. We find strong evidence for dust and no statistically significant evidence for tensor modes. We probe various model variations and extensions, including adding a synchrotron component in combination with lower frequency data, and find that these make little difference to the r constraint. Finally, we present an alternative analysis which is similar to a map-based cleaning of the dust contribution, and show that this gives similar constraints. The final result is expressed as a likelihood curve for r, and yields an upper limit r_{0.05}<0.12 at 95% confidence. Marginalizing over dust and r, lensing B modes are detected at 7.0σ significance.

PMID:
25815919
DOI:
10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.101301
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