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Genesis. 2015 Mar-Apr;53(3-4):270-7. doi: 10.1002/dvg.22850. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

prdm1a functions upstream of itga5 in zebrafish craniofacial development.

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Department of Craniofacial Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colrado.


Cranial neural crest cells are specified and migrate into the pharyngeal arches where they subsequently interact with the surrounding environment. Signaling and transcription factors, such as prdm1a regulate this interaction, but it remains unclear which specific factors are required for posterior pharyngeal arch development. Previous analysis suggests that prdm1a is required for posterior ceratobranchial cartilages in zebrafish and microarray analysis between wildtype and prdm1a mutants at 25 h post fertilization demonstrated that integrin α5 (itga5) is differentially expressed in prdm1a mutants. Here, we further investigate the interaction between prdm1a and itga5 in zebrafish craniofacial development. In situ hybridization for itga5 demonstrates that expression of itga5 is decreased in prdm1a mutants between 18 and 31 h post fertilization and itga5 expression overlaps with prdm1a in the posterior arches, suggesting a temporal window for interaction. Double mutants for prdm1a;itga5 have an additive viscerocranium phenotype more similar to prdm1a mutants, suggesting that prdm1a acts upstream of itga5. Consistent with this, loss of posterior pharyngeal arch expression of dlx2a, ceratobranchial cartilages 2-5, and cell proliferation in prdm1a mutants can be rescued with itga5 mRNA injection. Taken together, these data suggest that prdm1a acts upstream of itga5 and are both necessary for posterior pharyngeal arch development in zebrafish.


ceratobranchials; neural crest; pharyngeal arches

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