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J Clin Periodontol. 2015 May;42(5):422-30. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12391. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Pre-diabetes and well-controlled diabetes are not associated with periodontal disease: the SHIP Trend Study.

Author information

1
German Diabetes Center, Institute of Biometrics and Epidemiology, Düsseldorf, Germany.
2
Center of Clinical Epidemiology, c/o Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), University Hospital, Essen, Germany.
3
Unit of Periodontology, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Periodontology, and Endodontology, University Medicine, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Greifswald, Germany.
4
Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Greifswald, Germany;
5
Department of Prosthodontics, Gerodontology and Biomaterials, Dental School, University Medicine, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Greifswald, Germany.

Abstract

AIM:

To examine associations of pre-diabetes and well-controlled diabetes with periodontitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)-Trend is a cross-sectional survey in North-Eastern Germany including 3086 participants (49.4% men; age 20-82 years). Clinical attachment loss (CAL) and periodontal probing depth (PPD) were assessed applying a random half-mouth protocol. The number of teeth was determined. Pre-diabetes comprised impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. Previously known diabetes was defined as well controlled if glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was <7.0%. Participants were categorized as follows: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes, newly detected type 2 diabetes (T2DM), known T2DM with HbA1c<7.0% and known T2DM with HbA1c≥7.0%.

RESULTS:

Pre-diabetes was neither associated with mean CAL and PPD in multivariable adjusted linear regression models nor with edentulism (OR = 1.09 (95%-CI: 0.69-1.71)) and number of teeth (OR = 0.96 (95%-CI: 0.75-1.22), lowest quartile versus higher quartiles) in logistic regression models. Associations with mean CAL and edentulism were stronger in poorly controlled previously known diabetes than in well-controlled previously known diabetes (for edentulism: OR = 2.19 (95%-CI: 1.18-4.05), and OR = 1.40 (95%-CI: 0.82-2.38), respectively, for comparison with NGT).

CONCLUSIONS:

Periodontitis and edentulism were associated with poorly controlled T2DM, but not with pre-diabetes and well-controlled diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

diabetes mellitus; edentulous; glucose intolerance; hyperglycaemia; mouth; periodontal attachment loss; periodontal diseases; periodontitis; pre-diabetic state

PMID:
25808753
DOI:
10.1111/jcpe.12391
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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