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PLoS One. 2015 Mar 25;10(3):e0121670. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121670. eCollection 2015.

Enterovirus-infected β-cells induce distinct response patterns in BDCA1+ and BDCA3+ human dendritic cells.

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Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud university medical center, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.


Enteroviruses often cause mild disease, yet are also linked to development of autoimmune diabetes. Dendritic cells (DCs) shape both innate and adaptive immune responses, including anti-viral responses. How different human DC subsets shape anti-viral responses, whether they have complementary or overlapping functions and how this relates to autoimmune responses is largely unknown. We used enterovirus-infected β-cells and freshly isolated human myeloid DC (mDC) subsets as a model for autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Our data show that both the BDCA1+ and BDCA3+ mDC subsets engulf mock- as well as virus-infected β-cells, albeit BDCA1+ mDCs are more efficient. Uptake of enterovirus-infected, but not mock-infected cells, activated both DC subsets as indicated by the induction of co-stimulatory molecules and secretion of type I and type III interferons. Both subsets produced similar amounts of interferon-α, yet the BDCA3+ DC were superior in IFN-λ production. The BDCA1+ mDCs more strongly upregulated PD-L1, and were superior in IL-12 and IL-10 production as compared to the BDCA3+ DC. Despite lack of IL-12 production by the BDCA3+ DC, both BDCA1+ and BDCA3+ DCs activated T cells in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction towards a Th1-type reactivity while suppressing Th2-associated cytokines.

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