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J Affect Disord. 2015 Jun 1;178:121-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.004. Epub 2015 Mar 11.

Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders.

Author information

1
Pro Persona Mental Health Care,, Zandstraat 54, 3905 ED Veenendaal, The Netherlands. Electronic address: s.hendriks@propersona.nl.
2
Pro Persona Mental Health Care, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3
VU University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry/EMGO Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
4
Pro Persona Mental Health Care, Ede, The Netherlands.
5
Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance behaviour and depressive mood).

METHODS:

We included healthy controls, subjects with a history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders with a paid job (n=1632). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose anxiety and depressive disorders and to assess course trajectories at baseline, over 2 and 4 years. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II and the Health and Labour Questionnaire Short Form were used to measure work disability and absenteeism. Symptom dimensions were measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire and the Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology.

RESULTS:

A history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders were associated with increasing work disability and absenteeism over 4 years, compared to healthy controls. Long-term work disability and absenteeism were most prominent in comorbid anxiety-depressive disorder, followed by depressive disorders, and lowest in anxiety disorders. A chronic course, anxiety arousal and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work disability while baseline psychiatric status, a chronic course and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work absenteeism.

LIMITATIONS:

Results cannot be generalized to other anxiety disorders, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and specific phobias. Self-reported measures of work disability and absenteeism were used.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results demonstrate that depressive syndromes and symptoms have more impact on future work disability and absenteeism than anxiety, implying that prevention of depression is of major importance.

KEYWORDS:

Absenteeism; Anxiety disorder; Course; Depressive disorder; Disability; Work

PMID:
25805404
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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