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Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:905215. doi: 10.1155/2015/905215. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Bioavailability of dietary polyphenols and gut microbiota metabolism: antimicrobial properties.

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1
Research Unit "Biotechnology and Experimental Therapy Based in Nutraceuticals-BITTEN", Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias (IUOPA), Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.

Abstract

Polyphenolic compounds are plant nutraceuticals showing a huge structural diversity, including chlorogenic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids (flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, and flavones). Most of them occur as glycosylated derivatives in plants and foods. In order to become bioactive at human body, these polyphenols must undergo diverse intestinal transformations, due to the action of digestive enzymes, but also by the action of microbiota metabolism. After elimination of sugar tailoring (generating the corresponding aglycons) and diverse hydroxyl moieties, as well as further backbone reorganizations, the final absorbed compounds enter the portal vein circulation towards liver (where other enzymatic transformations take place) and from there to other organs, including behind the digestive tract or via blood towards urine excretion. During this transit along diverse tissues and organs, they are able to carry out strong antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic activities. This paper revises and discusses these antimicrobial activities of dietary polyphenols and their relevance for human health, shedding light on the importance of polyphenols structure recognition by specific enzymes produced by intestinal microbial taxa.

PMID:
25802870
PMCID:
PMC4352739
DOI:
10.1155/2015/905215
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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