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J Cell Physiol. 2015 Oct;230(10):2510-21. doi: 10.1002/jcp.24988.

Upregulation of Runt-Related Transcription Factor-2 Through CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein-β Signaling Pathway in Microglial BV-2 Cells Exposed to ATP.

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Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa, Japan.


We have shown constitutive expression of the master regulator of osteoblastogenesis, runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), by microglia cells outside bone. Here, we attempted to evaluate the pathological significance of Runx2 in microglial BV-2 cells exposed to ATP at a high concentration. Marked upregulation of Runx2 transcript and protein expression was seen in cells exposed to 1 mM ATP for a period longer than 30 min without inducing cytotoxicity. The Runx2 upregulation by ATP was prevented by extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) chelators, while thapsigargin upregulated Runx2 expression alone without affecting the upregulation by ATP. A calmodulin antagonist prevented the upregulation by ATP, with calcineurin inhibitors being ineffective. Although ATP markedly increased nuclear levels of nuclear factor of activated T cell-2 (NFAT2), Runx2 promoter activity was not simulated by the introduction of either NFAT1 or NFAT2, but facilitated by that of CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα), C/EBPβ and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like-2 (Nrf2). Exposure to ATP up-regulated C/EBPβ and Nrf2, but not C/EBPα, expression, in addition to increasing nuclear levels of respective corresponding proteins. Runx2 upregulation by ATP was deteriorated by knockdown of C/EBPβ but not by that of Nrf2, however, while exposure to ATP up-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-13 (Mmp13) expression in a Runx2-dependent manner. Overexpression of Runx2 up-regulated Mmp13 expression with promoted incorporation of fluorescent beads into BV-2 cells without ATP. These results suggest that extracellular ATP up-regulates Runx2 expression through activation of the C/EBPβ signaling in a calmodulin-dependent manner to play a pivotal role in phagocytosis in microglial BV-2 cells.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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