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J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Apr 22;63(15):3887-902. doi: 10.1021/jf506242t. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Soya Saponins Induce Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

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†Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), N-0033 Oslo, Norway.
‡U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Lamar, Pennsylvania 16848, United States.
§Marine College, Shandong University, Weihai 264209, People's Republic of China.
∥Sunndalsøra Aquaculture Research Station, Nofima, N-6600 Sunndalsøra, Norway.


Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine of salmonids, and saponins have been implicated as the causal agent. However, the question remains whether saponins alone cause SBMIE. Moreover, the dose-response relationship has not been described. In a 10 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon, a highly purified (95%) soya saponin preparation was supplemented (0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 g/kg) to two basal diets, one containing fishmeal as the major protein source (FM) and the other 25% lupin meal (LP). Saponins caused dose-dependent increases in the severity of inflammation independent of the basal diet, with concomitant alterations in digestive functions and immunological marker expression. Thus, saponins induced inflammation whether the diet contained other legume components or not. However, responses were often the same or stronger in fish fed the corresponding saponin-supplemented LP diets despite lower saponin exposure, suggesting potentiation by other legume component(s).


fishmeal; inflammation; intestine; lupin meal; soybean

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