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Cardiovasc Pathol. 2015 Jul-Aug;24(4):207-12. doi: 10.1016/j.carpath.2015.03.002. Epub 2015 Mar 10.

Cardiovascular calcification: current controversies and novel concepts.

Author information

1
Center for Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Sciences and Center for Excellence in Vascular Biology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
2
Center for Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Sciences and Center for Excellence in Vascular Biology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: eaikawa@partners.org.

Abstract

Cardiovascular calcification is a commonly observed but incompletely understood mechanism of increased atherosclerotic plaque instability and accelerated aortic valve stenosis. Traditional histological staining and imaging techniques are nonspecific for the type of mineral present in calcified tissues, information that is critical for proper validation of in vitro and in vivo models. This review highlights current gaps in our understanding of the biophysical implications and the cellular mechanisms of valvular and vascular calcification and how they may differ between the two tissue types. We also address the hindrances of current cell culture systems, discussing novel platforms and important considerations for future studies of cardiovascular calcification.

KEYWORDS:

Aortic valve; Atherosclerosis; Calcification; Vulnerable plaque

PMID:
25797772
DOI:
10.1016/j.carpath.2015.03.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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