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Clin Neurophysiol. 2015 Jun;126(6):1071-1107. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.02.001. Epub 2015 Feb 10.

Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee.

Author information

1
Institute of Neurology, Department of Geriatrics, Neuroscience and Orthopedics, Catholic University, Policlinic A. Gemelli, Rome, Italy.
2
Department of Neurology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
3
Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
4
Human Cortical Physiology and Neurorehabilitation Section, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
5
Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
6
Institute of Neurology, Department of Geriatrics, Neuroscience and Orthopedics, Catholic University, Policlinic A. Gemelli, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: r.diiorio@live.it.
7
Department of Neurology, University Campus Bio-medico, Rome, Italy.
8
Department of Neurology, University Campus Bio-medico, Rome, Italy; Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
9
Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Monash University Central Clinical School and The Alfred, Melbourne, Australia.
10
Medical University of South Carolina, Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA.
11
Human Motor Control Section, Medical Neurology Branch, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
12
Department of Physiology, Henri Mondor Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Créteil, France; EA 4391, Nerve Excitability and Therapeutic Team, Faculty of Medicine, Paris Est Créteil University, Créteil, France.
13
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
14
Department of Neurology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.
15
Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; IRCCS Centro San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy.
16
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany.
17
Berenson-Allen Center for Non-invasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
18
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany.
19
Brain Investigation & Neuromodulation Lab, Unit of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
20
Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
21
Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark.
22
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.
23
Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
24
Department of Neurology & Stroke, and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany.

Abstract

These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some of whom were in the panel of the 1994 "Report", was selected to produce a current state-of-the-art review of non-invasive stimulation both for clinical application and research in neuroscience. Since 1994, the international scientific community has seen a rapid increase in non-invasive brain stimulation in studying cognition, brain-behavior relationship and pathophysiology of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. New paradigms of stimulation and new techniques have been developed. Furthermore, a large number of studies and clinical trials have demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation, especially for TMS. Recent guidelines can be found in the literature covering specific aspects of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as safety (Rossi et al., 2009), methodology (Groppa et al., 2012) and therapeutic applications (Lefaucheur et al., 2014). This up-dated review covers theoretical, physiological and practical aspects of non-invasive stimulation of brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the light of more updated knowledge, and include some recent extensions and developments.

KEYWORDS:

Clinical neurophysiology; Excitability threshold; Human cortex; Non-invasive stimulation; TMS measures; Transcranial magnetic stimulation

PMID:
25797650
PMCID:
PMC6350257
DOI:
10.1016/j.clinph.2015.02.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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