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J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 May 26;166:323-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.025. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Urinary metabonomics elucidate the therapeutic mechanism of Orthosiphon stamineus in mouse crystal-induced kidney injury.

Author information

1
School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.
2
Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.
3
Proteomics/Mass Spec Facility, Center for Functional Genomics, University at Albany, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA.
4
School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address: dongxinsmmu@126.com.
5
Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address: drguozhiyong@163.com.
6
School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address: ziyanglou@163.com.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Orthosiphon stamineus (OS), a traditional Chinese herb, is often used for promoting urination and treating nephrolithiasis.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

Urolithiasis is a major worldwide public health burden due to its high incidence of recurrence and damage to renal function. However, the etiology for urolithiasis is not well understood. Metabonomics, the systematic study of small molecule metabolites present in biological samples, has become a valid and powerful tool for understanding disease phenotypes. In this study, a urinary metabolic profiling analysis was performed in a mouse model of renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition to identify potential biomarkers for crystal-induced renal damage and the anti-crystal mechanism of OS.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Thirty six mice were randomly divided into six groups including Saline, Crystal, Cystone and OS at dosages of 0.5g/kg, 1g/kg, and 2g/kg. A metabonomics approach using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was developed to perform the urinary metabolic profiling analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were utilized to identify differences between the metabolic profiles of mice in the saline control group and crystal group.

RESULTS:

Using partial least squares-discriminant analysis, 30 metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers of crystal-induced renal damage. Most of them were primarily involved in amino acid metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, purine metabolism, and the citrate cycle (TCA). After the treatment with OS, the levels of 20 biomarkers had returned to the levels of the control samples.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results suggest that OS has a protective effect for mice with crystal-induced kidney injury via the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways primarily involving amino acid, energy and choline metabolism.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarker discovery; Calcium oxalate crystal; Metabonomics; Orthosiphon stamineus; UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS

PMID:
25794803
DOI:
10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.025
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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