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Matrix Biol. 2015 May-Jul;44-46:207-23. doi: 10.1016/j.matbio.2015.03.004. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases: Their functions and regulations.

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Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7FY, UK. Electronic address:


Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) form a subgroup of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family, and there are 6 MT-MMPs in humans. MT-MMPs are further sub-classified into type I transmembrane-type (MT1, -MT2-, MT3- and MT5-MMPs) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored type (MT4- and MT6-MMPs). In either case MT-MMPs are tethered to the plasma membrane, and this cell surface expression provides those enzymes with unique functionalities affecting various cellular behaviours. Among the 6 MT-MMPs, MT1-MMP is the most investigated enzyme and many of its roles and regulations have been revealed to date, but the potential roles and regulatory mechanisms of other MT-MMPs are gradually getting clearer as well. Further investigations of MT-MMPs are likely to reveal novel pathophysiological mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies for different diseases in the future.


ECM degradation; GPI-anchor; MMP; MT-MMP; Transmembrane

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