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PLoS One. 2015 Mar 20;10(3):e0120763. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120763. eCollection 2015.

Cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to drug regimens for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the UK.

Author information

Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Beerse, Belgium.
HERON Commercialization, London, United Kingdom.
Janssen Global Services LLC, Raritan, New Jersey, United States of America.
Janssen (Janssen-Cilag), High Wycombe, United Kingdom.



To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to a background regimen (BR) of drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the United Kingdom (UK).


A cohort-based Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of bedaquiline plus BR (BBR) versus BR alone (BR) in the treatment of MDR-TB, over a 10-year time horizon. A National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services perspective was considered. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Data were sourced from a phase II, placebo-controlled trial, NHS reference costs, and the literature; the US list price of bedaquiline was used and converted to pounds (£18,800). Costs and effectiveness were discounted at a rate of 3.5% per annum. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted.


The total discounted cost per patient (pp) on BBR was £106,487, compared with £117,922 for BR. The total discounted QALYs pp were 5.16 for BBR and 4.01 for BR. The addition of bedaquiline to a BR resulted in a cost-saving of £11,434 and an additional 1.14 QALYs pp over a 10-year period, and is therefore considered to be the dominant (less costly and more effective) strategy over BR. BBR remained dominant in the majority of sensitivity analyses, with a 81% probability of being dominant versus BR in the probabilistic analysis.


In the UK, bedaquiline is likely to be cost-effective and cost-saving, compared with the current MDR-TB standard of care under a range of scenarios. Cost-savings over a 10-year period were realized from reductions in length of hospitalization, which offset the bedaquiline drug costs. The cost-benefit conclusions held after several sensitivity analyses, thus validating assumptions made, and suggesting that the results would hold even if the actual price of bedaquiline in the UK were higher than in the US.

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