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PLoS One. 2015 Mar 20;10(3):e0120748. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120748. eCollection 2015.

Association of Anaplasma marginale strain superinfection with infection prevalence within tropical regions.

Author information

1
Posgrado en Ciencias Genomicas, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, México D.F., México.
2
Animal Disease Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Pullman, Washington, United States of America; Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America.
3
Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Campus Juriquilla, Juriquilla, México.
4
Animal Disease Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Pullman, Washington, United States of America.
5
Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America.

Abstract

Strain superinfection occurs when a second strain infects a host already infected with and having mounted an immune response to a primary strain. The incidence of superinfection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of domestic and wild ruminants, has been shown to be higher in tropical versus temperate regions. This has been attributed to the higher prevalence of infection, with consequent immunity against primary strains and thus greater selective pressure for superinfection with antigenically distinct strains. However an alternative explanation would be the differences in the transmitting vector, Dermacentor andersoni in the studied temperate regions and Rhipicephalus microplus in the studied tropical regions. To address this question, we examined two tropical populations sharing the same vector, R. microplus, but with significantly different infection prevalence. Using two separate markers, msp1α (one allele per genome) and msp2 (multiple alleles per genome), there were higher levels of multiple strain infections in the high infection prevalence as compared to the low prevalence population. The association of higher strain diversity with infection prevalence supports the hypothesis that high levels of infection prevalence and consequent population immunity is the predominant driver of strain superinfection.

PMID:
25793966
PMCID:
PMC4368111
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0120748
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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