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Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr;120(4):915-22. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000632.

Web-based tailored intervention for preparation of parents and children for outpatient surgery (WebTIPS): formative evaluation and randomized controlled trial.

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From the *Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California; †UCI Center on Stress & Health, Irvine, California; ‡Department of Anesthesiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; §School of Nursing Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; ∥Child Life Department, Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California; ¶Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.



The purpose of this 2-phase project was to conduct a formative evaluation and to test the preliminary efficacy of a newly developed Web-based Tailored Intervention for Preparation of parents and children undergoing Surgery (WebTIPS).


Phase 1 enrolled 13 children 2 to 7 years of age undergoing outpatient elective surgery and their parents for formative evaluation of WebTIPS. Parent participation focus groups are common in qualitative research and are a method of asking research participants about their perceptions and attitudes regarding a product or concept. In phase 2, children 2 to 7 years of age in 2 medical centers were assigned randomly to receive the WebTIPS program (n = 38) compared with children receiving the standard of care (n = 44). The primary outcome of phase II was child and parent preoperative anxiety.


In phase 2, parents reported WebTIPS to be both helpful (P < 0.001) and easy to use (P < 0.001). In phase 2, children in the WebTIPS group (36.2 ± 14.1) were less anxious than children in the standard of care group (46.0 ± 19.0) at entrance to the operating room (P = 0.02; Cohen d = 0.59) and introduction of the anesthesia mask (43.5 ± 21.7 vs 57.0 ± 21.2, respectively, P = 0.01; Cohen d = 0.63). Parents in the WebTIPS group (32.1 ± 7.4) also experienced less anxiety compared with parents in the control group (36.8 ± 7.1) in the preoperative holding area (P = 0.004; Cohen d = 0.65).


WebTIPS was well received by parents and children and led to reductions in preoperative anxiety.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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