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Internist (Berl). 2015 Apr;56(4):354-63. doi: 10.1007/s00108-014-3596-5.

[Acute myeloid leukemia].

[Article in German]

Author information

1
Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Universitätsklinikum Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, 89081, Ulm, Deutschland, konstanze.doehner@uniklinik-ulm.de.

Abstract

In recent years, the development of novel molecular techniques has been instrumental in deciphering the genetic heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as well as in gaining important insights into the pathomechanisms of AML. Genetic diagnostics has become an essential component in the initial work-up for disease classification, prognostication, and genotype-specific therapies. A major prerequisite for such individualized treatment strategies is a rapid pretherapeutic genetic analysis, which includes screening for the recurrent AML-associated gene fusions as well as mutations in the genes NPM1, FLT3, and CEBPA. Some of these molecular markers can be used for monitoring minimal residual disease and therefore provide clinically relevant information. There is an increasing number of promising molecularly targeted therapies in clinical development for distinct genetic AML subgroups. Solid data exist for the combination of all-trans retinoic acid and arsentrioxid in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia; the addition of the immunoconjugate gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) to induction therapy has been shown to improve outcome in cytogenetic low- and intermediate-risk AML. Furthermore, there are encouraging data on the combination of intensive chemotherapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with AML harboring FLT3 mutations or with core-binding factor AML. Other novel therapeutic approaches address mutations or alterations in epigenetic regulators, such as IDH or DOT1L inhibitors. The comprehensive characterization of the underlying genetic mechanisms is essential for the development of novel target-specific compounds with the aim of improving outcome in AML patients.

PMID:
25787321
DOI:
10.1007/s00108-014-3596-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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