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Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Mar 16;16(3):6093-112. doi: 10.3390/ijms16036093.

Osteoarthritis in the XXIst century: risk factors and behaviours that influence disease onset and progression.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 87, 95123 Catania, Italy. g.musumeci@unict.it.
2
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 87, 95123 Catania, Italy. flaviayellow@tiscali.it.
3
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 87, 95123 Catania, Italy. mszychlinska@unict.it.
4
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Pathology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy. mdirosa@unict.it.
5
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 87, 95123 Catania, Italy. pacastro@unict.it.
6
The D-BOARD European Consortium for Biomarker Discovery, Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK. a.mobasheri@surrey.ac.uk.
7
Arthritis Research UK Centre for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis, Arthritis Research UK Pain Centre, Medical Research Council and Arthritis Research UK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK. a.mobasheri@surrey.ac.uk.
8
Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Fahd Medical Research Center (KFMRC), King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. a.mobasheri@surrey.ac.uk.

Abstract

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a growing public health problem across the globe, affecting more than half of the over 65 population. In the past, OA was considered a wear and tear disease, leading to the loss of articular cartilage and joint disability. Nowadays, thanks to advancements in molecular biology, OA is believed to be a very complex multifactorial disease. OA is a degenerative disease characterized by "low-grade inflammation" in cartilage and synovium, resulting in the loss of joint structure and progressive deterioration of cartilage. Although the disease can be dependent on genetic and epigenetic factors, sex, ethnicity, and age (cellular senescence, apoptosis and lubricin), it is also associated with obesity and overweight, dietary factors, sedentary lifestyle and sport injuries. The aim of this review is to highlight how certain behaviors, habits and lifestyles may be involved in the onset and progression of OA and to summarize the principal risk factors involved in the development of this complicated joint disorder.

PMID:
25785564
PMCID:
PMC4394521
DOI:
10.3390/ijms16036093
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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