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Biomark Res. 2014 Nov 13;2:20. doi: 10.1186/2050-7771-2-20. eCollection 2014.

Development of TAP, a non-invasive test for qualitative and quantitative measurements of biomarkers from the skin surface.

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FibroTx LLC, Mäealuse 4, 12918 Tallinn, Estonia.
Dermatology Clinic, Tartu University Hospital, Raja 31, 50407 Tartu, Estonia.
FibroTx LLC, Mäealuse 4, 12918 Tallinn, Estonia ; PS! Pharmaconsult, Møllemoseparken 44, 3450 Allerød, Denmark.



The skin proteome contains valuable information on skin condition, but also on how skin may evolve in time and may respond to treatments. Despite the potential of measuring regulatory-, effector- and structural proteins in the skin for biomarker applications in clinical dermatology and skin care, convenient diagnostic tools are lacking. The aim of the present study was to develop a highly versatile and non-invasive diagnostic tool for multiplex measurements of protein biomarkers from the surface of skin.


The Transdermal Analyses Patch (TAP) is a novel molecular diagnostic tool that has been developed to capture biomarkers directly from skin, which are quantitatively analyzed in spot-ELISA assays. Optimisation of protocols for TAP production and biomarker analyses makes TAP measurements highly specific and reproducible. In measurements of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) and human β-defensin (hBD-1) from healthy skin, TAP appears far more sensitive than skin lavage-based methods using ELISA. No side-effects were observed using TAP on human skin.


TAP is a practical and valuable new skin diagnostic tool for measuring protein-based biomarkers from skin, which is convenient to use for operators, with minimal burden for patients.


Biomarker; CXCL-1; CXCL-2; Dermatology; Diagnostics; Interleukin 1RA; Interleukin 1α; Skin care; Transdermal analyses patch; β-defensin-1

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