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PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Mar 17;9(3):e0003631. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003631. eCollection 2015 Mar.

Discovery of novel rhabdoviruses in the blood of healthy individuals from West Africa.

Author information

1
FAS Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America; Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.
2
Institute of Lassa Fever Research and Control, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria; Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer's University, Redemption City, Ogun State, Nigeria.
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America.
4
Institute of Lassa Fever Research and Control, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria.
5
Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.
6
Lahor Research Laboratories and Medical Centre, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
7
CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Australia.
8
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.
9
FAS Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America; Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America; Department of Immunology and Infectious Disease, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Abstract

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to transform the discovery of viruses causing unexplained acute febrile illness (UAFI) because it does not depend on culturing the pathogen or a priori knowledge of the pathogen's nucleic acid sequence. More generally, it has the potential to elucidate the complete human virome, including viruses that cause no overt symptoms of disease, but may have unrecognized immunological or developmental consequences. We have used NGS to identify RNA viruses in the blood of 195 patients with UAFI and compared them with those found in 328 apparently healthy (i.e., no overt signs of illness) control individuals, all from communities in southeastern Nigeria. Among UAFI patients, we identified the presence of nucleic acids from several well-characterized pathogenic viruses, such as HIV-1, hepatitis, and Lassa virus. In our cohort of healthy individuals, however, we detected the nucleic acids of two novel rhabdoviruses. These viruses, which we call Ekpoma virus-1 (EKV-1) and Ekpoma virus-2 (EKV-2), are highly divergent, with little identity to each other or other known viruses. The most closely related rhabdoviruses are members of the genus Tibrovirus and Bas-Congo virus (BASV), which was recently identified in an individual with symptoms resembling hemorrhagic fever. Furthermore, by conducting a serosurvey of our study cohort, we find evidence for remarkably high exposure rates to the identified rhabdoviruses. The recent discoveries of novel rhabdoviruses by multiple research groups suggest that human infection with rhabdoviruses might be common. While the prevalence and clinical significance of these viruses are currently unknown, these viruses could have previously unrecognized impacts on human health; further research to understand the immunological and developmental impact of these viruses should be explored. More generally, the identification of similar novel viruses in individuals with and without overt symptoms of disease highlights the need for a broader understanding of the human virome as efforts for viral detection and discovery advance.

PMID:
25781465
PMCID:
PMC4363514
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pntd.0003631
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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