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Ann Pharmacother. 2015 Jun;49(6):656-69. doi: 10.1177/1060028015577445. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

Development of clinical pharmacy key performance indicators for hospital pharmacists using a modified Delphi approach.

Author information

1
University Health Network Pharmacy Department, Toronto, ON, Canada University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
2
Interior Health Pharmacy Services, Kelowna, BC, Canada The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada cpKPICollaborative@gmail.com.
3
Interior Health Pharmacy Services, Kelowna, BC, Canada The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
4
Regina Qu'Appelle Health Region Pharmacy Services, Regina, SK, Canada University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
5
The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Lower Mainland Pharmacy Services, Providence Healthcare, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
6
Département de pharmacie et unité de recherche en pratique pharmaceutique, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, QC, Canada Université de Montréal, QC, Canada.
7
Horizon Health Network Pharmacy Services, Moncton, NB, Canada Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
8
McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
9
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Pharmacy Department, Toronto, ON, Canada.
10
Foothills Medical Centre Pharmacy Department, Calgary, AB, Canada.
11
St Michael's Hospital Pharmacy Department, Toronto, ON, Canada.
12
University Health Network-Toronto Rehabilitation Institute Pharmacy Department, Toronto, ON, Canada.
13
James L Winkle College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
14
University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES), Toronto, ON, Canada.
15
Alberta Health Services Pharmacy Services, Red Deer, AB, Canada.
16
Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
17
The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
18
Capital District Health Authority Pharmacy Department, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Key performance indicators (KPIs) are quantifiable measures of quality. There are no published, systematically derived clinical pharmacy KPIs (cpKPIs).

OBJECTIVE:

A group of hospital pharmacists aimed to develop national cpKPIs to advance clinical pharmacy practice and improve patient care.

METHODS:

A cpKPI working group established a cpKPI definition, 8 evidence-derived cpKPI critical activity areas, 26 candidate cpKPIs, and 11 cpKPI ideal attributes in addition to 1 overall consensus criterion. Twenty-six clinical pharmacists and hospital pharmacy leaders participated in an internet-based 3-round modified Delphi survey. Panelists rated 26 candidate cpKPIs using 11 cpKPI ideal attributes and 1 overall consensus criterion on a 9-point Likert scale. A meeting was facilitated between rounds 2 and 3 to debate the merits and wording of candidate cpKPIs. Consensus was reached if 75% or more of panelists assigned a score of 7 to 9 on the consensus criterion during the third Delphi round.

RESULTS:

All panelists completed the 3 Delphi rounds, and 25/26 (96%) attended the meeting. Eight candidate cpKPIs met the consensus definition: (1) performing admission medication reconciliation (including best-possible medication history), (2) participating in interprofessional patient care rounds, (3) completing pharmaceutical care plans, (4) resolving drug therapy problems, (5) providing in-person disease and medication education to patients, (6) providing discharge patient medication education, (7) performing discharge medication reconciliation, and (8) providing bundled, proactive direct patient care activities.

CONCLUSIONS:

A Delphi panel of hospital pharmacists was successful in determining 8 consensus cpKPIs. Measurement and assessment of these cpKPIs will serve to advance clinical pharmacy practice and improve patient care.

KEYWORDS:

Delphi consensus; clinical pharmacy; key performance indicators; process-of-care indicators

PMID:
25780250
DOI:
10.1177/1060028015577445
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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