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Adv Healthc Mater. 2015 Nov 18;4(16):2326-41. doi: 10.1002/adhm.201400762. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

Generation and Assessment of Functional Biomaterial Scaffolds for Applications in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

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Department of Cell and Tissue Engineering, Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology (IGB), Nobelstrasse 12, Stuttgart, 70569, Germany.
Department of Women's Health, Research Institute for Women's Health, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Silcherstr. 7/1, Tübingen, 72076, Germany.
Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology (IGVP), University of Stuttgart, Nobelstrasse 12, Stuttgart, 70569, Germany.
Department of Medicine/Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Laboratories, David Geffen School of Medicine at the, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, USA.


Current clinically applicable tissue and organ replacement therapies are limited in the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine. The available options do not regenerate damaged tissues and organs, and, in the majority of the cases, show insufficient restoration of tissue function. To date, anticoagulant drug-free heart valve replacements or growing valves for pediatric patients, hemocompatible and thrombus-free vascular substitutes that are smaller than 6 mm, and stem cell-recruiting delivery systems that induce myocardial regeneration are still only visions of researchers and medical professionals worldwide and far from being the standard of clinical treatment. The design of functional off-the-shelf biomaterials as well as automatable and up-scalable biomaterial processing methods are the focus of current research endeavors and of great interest for fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, various approaches that aim to overcome the current limitations are reviewed, focusing on biomaterials design and generation methods for myocardium, heart valves, and blood vessels. Furthermore, novel contact- and marker-free biomaterial and extracellular matrix assessment methods are highlighted.


Raman spectroscopy; biomaterials; biomimetic tissues; blood vessels; cardiovascular tissue engineering; heart valves; myocardium

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