Send to

Choose Destination
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2015 Jun;70(2):141-5. doi: 10.1007/s11130-015-0470-0.

Effect of white, red and black ginseng on physicochemical properties and ginsenosides.

Author information

Department of Oriental Medicinal Material & Processing, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.


A systematic comparison of the ginsenosides and physicochemical properties of white ginseng (WG), red ginseng (RG) and black ginseng (BG) was performed. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of the physicochemical properties by steaming process. During the steaming process, ginsenosides transform into specific ginsenosides by hydrolysis, dehydration and isomerization at C-3, C-6 or C-20. Steaming ginseng led to a significant increase in reducing sugar, acidic polysaccharide and phenolic compounds content. Antioxidative properties were investigated using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, compared with BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole). RG and BG exhibited higher antioxidant activity than WG. The maximum residue level for Benzo(a)pyrene was established to 5 μg/kg in food products. The levels of benzo(a)pyrene in WG and RG were not detected. Benzo(a)pyrene was detected in the BG, the content was 0.17 μg/kg. The scientific achievements of the present study could help consumers to choose different type of ginseng products available on the market.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center