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J Altern Complement Med. 2015 Apr;21(4):237-42. doi: 10.1089/acm.2013.0211. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

The continuity of the body: hypothesis of treatment of the five diaphragms.

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1 Don Carlo Gnocchi IRCCS , Department of Cardiology, IRCCS S. Maria Nascente, Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Milano, Italy .


The diaphragm muscle should not be seen as a segment but as part of a body system. This muscle is an important crossroads of information for the entire body, from the trigeminal system to the pelvic floor, passing from thoracic diaphragm to the floor of the mouth: the network of breath. Viola Frymann first spoke of the treatment of three diaphragms, and more recently four diaphragms have been discussed. Current scientific knowledge has led to discussion of the manual treatment of five diaphragms. This article highlights the anatomic connections and fascial and neurologic aspects of the diaphragm muscle, with four other structures considered as diaphragms: that is, the five diaphragms. The logic of the manual treatment proposed here is based on a concept and diagnostic work that should be the basis for any area of the body: The patient never just has a localized symptom but rather a system that adapts to a question.

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