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Vet Microbiol. 2015 Aug 31;179(1-2):23-33. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.02.013. Epub 2015 Feb 25.

Animal models to study the pathogenesis of human and animal Clostridium perfringens infections.

Author information

1
California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, San Bernardino Branch, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, San Bernardino, CA 92408, USA. Electronic address: fuzal@cahfs.uccdavis.edu.
2
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.
3
Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
4
Department of Large Animal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National University of the Center of Buenos Aires Province, Tandil, Argentina.
5
Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia; Poultry Cooperative Research Centre, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia.
6
Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; Poultry Cooperative Research Centre, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia.

Abstract

The most common animal models used to study Clostridium perfringens infections in humans and animals are reviewed here. The classical C. perfringens-mediated histotoxic disease of humans is clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene and the use of a mouse myonecrosis model coupled with genetic studies has contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the use of a chicken model has enhanced our understanding of type A-mediated necrotic enteritis in poultry and has led to the identification of NetB as the primary toxin involved in disease. C. perfringens type A food poisoning is a highly prevalent bacterial illness in the USA and elsewhere. Rabbits and mice are the species most commonly used to study the action of enterotoxin, the causative toxin. Other animal models used to study the effect of this toxin are rats, non-human primates, sheep and cattle. In rabbits and mice, CPE produces severe necrosis of the small intestinal epithelium along with fluid accumulation. C. perfringens type D infection has been studied by inoculating epsilon toxin (ETX) intravenously into mice, rats, sheep, goats and cattle, and by intraduodenal inoculation of whole cultures of this microorganism in mice, sheep, goats and cattle. Molecular Koch's postulates have been fulfilled for enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A in rabbits and mice, for C. perfringens type A necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene in chickens and mice, respectively, for C. perfringens type C in mice, rabbits and goats, and for C. perfringens type D in mice, sheep and goats.

KEYWORDS:

Alpha toxin; Beta toxin; Clostridium perfringens; Enterotoxin; Epsilon toxin; NetB

PMID:
25770894
PMCID:
PMC5215807
DOI:
10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.02.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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