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J Biomed Opt. 2015 Jun;20(6):61106. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.20.6.061106.

Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy in type 2 diabetic patients who have no signs of diabetic retinopathy.

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University Hospital Jena, Experimental Ophthalmology, Bachstrasse 18, D-07743 Jena, Germany.
Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, P.O. Box 100565, D-9868 Ilmenau, Germany.
University Hospital Jena, Clinic of Internal Medicine III, Erlanger Allee 101, D-07740 Jena, Germany.
University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Ophthalmology, Liebigstr.10-14, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.


The time-resolved autofluorescence of the eye is used for the detection of metabolic alteration in diabetic patients who have no signs of diabetic retinopathy. One eye from 37 phakic and 11 pseudophakic patients with type 2 diabetes, and one eye from 25 phakic and 23 pseudophakic healthy subjects were included n the study. After a three-exponential fit of the decay of autofluorescence, histograms of lifetimes τ(i), amplitudes α(i), and relative contributions Q(i) were statistically compared between corresponding groups in two spectral channels (490 < ch1 < 560 nm, 560 < ch2 < 700 nm). The change in single fluorophores was estimated by applying the Holm–Bonferroni method and by calculating differences in the sum histograms of lifetimes. Median and mean of the histograms of τ(2), τ(3), and α(3) in ch1 show the greatest differences between phakic diabetic patients and age-matched controls (p < 0.000004). The lack of pixels with a τ(2) of ∼360 ps, the increased number of pixels with τ(2) > 450 ps, and the shift of τ(3) from ∼3000 to 3700 ps in ch1 of diabetic patients when compared with healthy subjects indicate an increased production of free flavin adenine dinucleotide, accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), and, probably, a change from free to protein-bound reduced nicotinamide adenine inucleotide at the fundus. AGE also accumulated in the crystalline lens.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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