Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Circ Res. 2015 Mar 13;116(6):1034-45. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.303755.

Clinical value of ambulatory blood pressure: evidence and limits.

Author information

1
From the University of Milano-Bicocca, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milano, Italy (G.M.); and Department of Medicine, Hospital of Assisi, Assisi, Italy (P.V.). giuseppe.mancia@unimib.it.
2
From the University of Milano-Bicocca, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milano, Italy (G.M.); and Department of Medicine, Hospital of Assisi, Assisi, Italy (P.V.).

Abstract

This article reviews the clinical value of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) vis-à-vis the traditional BP measurements taken in the physician's office or in the hospital. Mention is initially made that longitudinal studies conducted in the general population or in hypertensive cohorts have shown that ambulatory BP provides a more accurate prediction of outcome than office BP. Namely, that (1) the risk of cardiovascular events increases in a less steep fashion with office than with 24-hour mean BP, (2) the 24-hour BP-dependent prediction is maintained after adjustment for office BP values, and (3) among individuals with normal office BP, those with increased ambulatory BP (masked hypertension) have an increased prevalence of organ damage, a more frequent unfavorable metabolic profile and a higher risk of new onset sustained hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular events than those with normal ambulatory BP. It is further mentioned, however, that more recently similar observations have been made for individuals with high office but normal ambulatory BP (white coat hypertension) suggesting a complementary role of out-of-office and office BP values in the determination of patients' prognosis. The evidence in favor of an independent prognostic value also of some within 24-hour BP phenomena (night BP reduction or absolute values, short-term BP variations, and morning BP surge) is then critically appraised for its elements of strength and weakness. Finally, whether the clinical advantages of ambulatory BP make this approach necessary for all patients with hypertension is discussed. The conclusion is that this is at present still premature because crucial evidence pro or against routine use of this approach in untreated and treated hypertensives is not yet available. It will be crucial for future studies to determine whether, compared with a treatment guided by office BP, a treatment tailored on ambulatory BP allows to improve prevention or regression of organ damage as well as protection from major cardiovascular complications to a degree that justifies the complexity and cost of the procedure.

KEYWORDS:

blood pressure; cardiovascular diseases; end-stage renal disease; hypertension; masked hypertension; white coat hypertension

PMID:
25767288
DOI:
10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.303755
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center