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Proteomics Clin Appl. 2015 Jun;9(5-6):490-500. doi: 10.1002/prca.201400193.

Urinary biomarkers of kidney diseases in HIV-infected children.

Author information

1
Center for Genetic Medicine Research, Children's National Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
2
Division of Nephrology, Children's National Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Children's National Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Abstract

A significant number of children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) virus all over the world are at risk of developing renal diseases that could have a significant impact on their treatment and quality of life. It is necessary to identify children undergoing the early stages of these renal diseases, as well as the potential renal toxicity that could be caused by antiretroviral drugs, in order to prevent the development of cardiovascular complications and chronic renal failure. This article describes the most common renal diseases seen in HIV-infected children, as well as the value and limitations of the clinical markers that are currently being used to monitor their renal function and histological damage in a noninvasive manner. In addition, we discuss the progress made during the last 10 years in the discovery and validation of new renal biomarkers for HIV-infected children and young adults. Although significant progress has been made during the early phases of the biomarkers discovery, more work remains to be done to validate the new biomarkers in a large number of patients. The future looks promising, however, the new knowledge needs to be integrated and validated in the context of the clinical environment where these children are living.

KEYWORDS:

Acute kidney injury; HIV-associated nephropathy; Hemolytic uremic syndrome; Proteinuria; Renal urinary biomarkers

PMID:
25764519
PMCID:
PMC4530778
DOI:
10.1002/prca.201400193
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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