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Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015 Jul;232(14):2609-17. doi: 10.1007/s00213-015-3898-x. Epub 2015 Mar 12.

Exploring the role of drug-metabolising enzymes in antidepressant side effects.

Author information

1
MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK, karen.hodgson@kcl.ac.uk.

Abstract

RATIONALE:

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are important in the metabolism of antidepressants. The highly polymorphic nature of these enzymes has been linked to variability in antidepressant metabolism rates, leading to hope regarding the use of P450 genotyping to guide treatment. However, evidence that P450 genotypic differences underlie the variation in treatment outcomes is inconclusive.

OBJECTIVES:

We explored the links between both P450 genotype and serum concentrations of antidepressant with antidepressant side effects, using data from the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression Project (GENDEP), which is a large (n = 868), pharmacogenetic study of depressed individuals treated with escitalopram or nortriptyline.

METHODS:

Patients were genotyped for the enzymes CYP2C19 and CYP2D6, and serum concentrations of both antidepressant and primary metabolite were measured after 8 weeks of treatment. Side effects were assessed weekly. We investigated associations between P450 genotypes, serum concentrations of antidepressants and side effects, as well as the relationship between P450 genotype and study discontinuation.

RESULTS:

P450 genotype did not predict total side effect burden (nortriptyline: n = 251, p = 0.5638, β = -0.133, standard error (SE) = 0.229; escitalopram: n = 340, p = 0.9627, β = -0.004, SE = 0.085), study discontinuation (nortriptyline n = 284, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.300, p = 0.174; escitalopram n = 376, HR = 0.870, p = 0.118) or specific side effects. Serum concentrations of antidepressant were only related to a minority of the specific side effects measured: dry mouth, dizziness and diarrhoea.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this sample where antidepressant dosage is titrated using clinical judgement, P450 genotypes do not explain differences between patients in side effects with antidepressants. Serum drug concentrations appear to only explain variability in the occurrence of a minority of specific side effects.

PMID:
25761838
PMCID:
PMC4480333
DOI:
10.1007/s00213-015-3898-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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