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Proteomics. 2015 Jun;15(12):2136-45. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201400612. Epub 2015 May 15.

Antiviral antibody profiling by high-density protein arrays.

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Virginia G. Piper Center for Personalized Diagnostics, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
Center for Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
Engineering Arts LLC, Tempe, AZ, USA.
Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
Northern Ireland Centre for Stratified Medicine, University of Ulster, Londonderry, UK.
Arthritis Research Group, Centre for Infection and Immunity, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.


Viral infections elicit antiviral antibodies and have been associated with various chronic diseases. Detection of these antibodies can facilitate diagnosis, treatment of infection, and understanding of the mechanisms of virus-associated diseases. In this work, we assayed antiviral antibodies using a novel high-density nucleic acid programmable protein array (HD-NAPPA) platform. Individual viral proteins were expressed in situ directly from plasmids encoding proteins in an array of microscopic reaction chambers. Quality of protein display and serum response was assured by comparing intra- and inter-array correlation within or between printing batches with average correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.96, respectively. HD-NAPPA showed higher signal-to-background ratio compared with standard NAPPA on planar glass slides and ELISA. Antibody responses to 761 antigens from 25 different viruses were profiled among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and type 1 diabetes. Common and unique antibody reactivity patterns were detected between patients and healthy controls. We believe HD-viral-NAPPA will enable the study of host-pathogen interactions at unprecedented dimensions and elucidate the role of pathogen infections in disease development.


Antiviral antibodies; HD-NAPPA; Juvenile idiopathic arthritis; Protein arrays; Type 1 diabetes

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