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Adv Mater. 2015 Apr 17;27(15):2501-6. doi: 10.1002/adma.201405840. Epub 2015 Mar 10.

A highly concentrated catholyte based on a solvate ionic liquid for rechargeable flow batteries.

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Materias Research Department, Toyoa Research Institute of North America, 1555 Woodridge Ave., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105, USA; Sustainable Energy and Environment Division II, Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1192, Japan.


A redox-active supercooled liquid is obtained by forming a "solvate ionic liquid" from a mixture of a stabilized organic radical and a specific Li salt and stabilizing the mixture further below their melting points. As a catholyte, the addition of an appropriate amount of water helps to enhance the electrochemical advantage while maintaining its supercooled nature and the liquid shows a high energy density of 200 W h L(-1) with reversible charge/discharge.


batteries; flow batteries; ionic liquids; radicals; supercooled liquids


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