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Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1989 Dec 22;238(1292):245-76.

Evolution of resistance with sequential application of insecticides in time and space.

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Department of Theoretical Physics, Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, U.K.


The effect, on the evolution of resistance, of alternating two unrelated insecticides in space or in time (or both) is studied. Transient polymorphism is shown to occur under certain conditions of mating, selection and migration. In some situations, the transient polymorphism can show a sharp decline before the alleles recover to fixation. Alternating a single insecticide in space, and in space and time, is also considered. Neither alternation in space nor in time shows any advantage with regard to delaying the onset of resistance. The most promising mode is to alternate the presence and absence of a single insecticide in both space and time, especially if it is applied at the larval stage and if some form of biological control is used in the regions where no insecticide is applied.

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