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Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1989 Dec;18(4):671-93.

The gastroenteropancreatic endocrine system and related tumors.

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  • 1University of Pavia, Italy.


Up to 16 types of endocrine cells have been characterized morphologically (and most of them also functionally) in the gastroenteropancreatic area. Four main groups of pancreatic endocrine tumors (with several subtypes) have been identified: islet cell, ectopic, nonfunctioning, and poorly differentiated tumors. A detailed classification system that combines cytologic and clinicopathologic patterns has been developed for the study of 132 pancreatic tumors. Among a large series (more than 120 cases) of endocrine tumors arising in the gastrointestinal tract, serotonin-producing argentaffin carcinoids have been separated from hindgut trabecular carcinoids, producing glucagon- and pancreatic polypeptide-related peptides, paragangliomas, somatostatin cell tumors, gastrinomas, and argyrophil ECL cell carcinoids. The clinicopathologic profile of the various pancreatic and gastrointestinal tumor entities has been delineated and involvement in the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome has been analyzed in detail.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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