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Am J Transl Res. 2015 Jan 15;7(1):28-38. eCollection 2015.

Development of a new model for the induction of chronic kidney disease via intraperitoneal adenine administration, and the effect of treatment with gum acacia thereon.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University Oman.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
3
Institute of Toxicology, University of Duesseldorf Duesseldorf, Germany.
4
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Abstract

Oral adenine (0.75% w/w in feed), is an established model for human chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gum acacia (GA) has been shown to be a nephroprotective agent in this model. Here we aimed at developing a new adenine-induced CKD model in rats via a systemic route (intraperitoneal, i.p.) and to test it with GA to obviate the possibility of a physical interaction between GA and adenine in the gut. Adenine was injected i.p. (50 or 100 mg/Kg for four weeks), and GA was given concomitantly in drinking water at a concentration of 15%, w/v. Several plasma and urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured and the renal damage was assessed histopathologically. Adenine, at the two given i.p. doses, significantly reduced body weight, and increased relative kidney weight, water intake and urine output. It dose-dependently increased plasma and urinary inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, and caused morphological and histological damage resembling that which has been reported with oral adenine. Concomitant treatment with GA significantly mitigated almost all the above measured indices. Administration of adenine i.p. induced CKD signs very similar to those induced by oral adenine. Therefore, this new model is quicker, more practical and accurate than the original (oral) model. GA ameliorates the CKD effects caused by adenine given i.p. suggesting that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties possessed by oral GA are the main mechanism for its salutary action in adenine-induced CKD, an action that is independent of its possible interaction with adenine in the gut.

KEYWORDS:

Adenine; animal model; chronic kidney disease; rats

PMID:
25755826
PMCID:
PMC4346521

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