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Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 Jan 1;8(1):345-52. eCollection 2015.

Increased expression of HMGB3: a novel independent prognostic marker of worse outcome in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

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Department of Head and Neck Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University Xiamen, China.
MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University Guangzhou, China.
Department of Medical Oncology, Chenggong Hospital of Xiamen University Xiamen, China.
Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University Xiamen, China.
Department of Anesthesiology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center Guangzhou, China.


HMGB3, an X-linked member of the high-mobility group (HMG) superfamily of HMG proteins, has been shown to affect numerous tumorigenic progression. However, the expression and the prognostic role of HMGB3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remained unknown. In this study, we examined the HMGB3 expression in ESCC tissues and adjacent nontumorous tissues by qRT-PCR and immuohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test for prognostic and diagnostic associations. The mRNA levels of HMGB3 were found to be significantly higher in tumorous tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues. We found that the HMGB3 expression was higher in tumorous tissues than in the adjacent non-tumorous tissues by immunohistochemical analysis of paired tissue specimens (P < 0.001). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between HMGB3 expression and gender (P = 0.037), clinical stage (P = 0.038), T classification (P = 0.013) and N classification (P = 0.017). Patients with higher HMGB3 expression had shorter overall survival than those with lower HMGB3 expression. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that HMGB3 expression is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 0.591, 95% CI = 0.379-0.793, P = 0.039). In summary, these findings demonstrate that HMBG3 may be a potential molecular marker for predicting the prognosis of ESCC patients.


HMGB3; biomarker; esophageal cancer; immunohistochemistry; prognosis; real-time PCR

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