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Neuron. 2015 Mar 18;85(6):1332-43. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.019. Epub 2015 Mar 5.

Gamma rhythms link prefrontal interneuron dysfunction with cognitive inflexibility in Dlx5/6(+/-) mice.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Center for Integrative Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Sloan-Swartz Center for Theoretical Neurobiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
2
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
3
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Center for Integrative Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Sloan-Swartz Center for Theoretical Neurobiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address: vikaas.sohal@ucsf.edu.

Abstract

Abnormalities in GABAergic interneurons, particularly fast-spiking interneurons (FSINs) that generate gamma (γ; ∼30-120 Hz) oscillations, are hypothesized to disrupt prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognition in schizophrenia. Although γ rhythms are abnormal in schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether they directly influence cognition. Mechanisms underlying schizophrenia's typical post-adolescent onset also remain elusive. We addressed these issues using mice heterozygous for Dlx5/6, which regulate GABAergic interneuron development. In Dlx5/6(+/-) mice, FSINs become abnormal following adolescence, coinciding with the onset of cognitive inflexibility and deficient task-evoked γ oscillations. Inhibiting PFC interneurons in control mice reproduced these deficits, whereas stimulating them at γ-frequencies restored cognitive flexibility in adult Dlx5/6(+/-) mice. These pro-cognitive effects were frequency specific and persistent. These findings elucidate a mechanism whereby abnormal FSIN development may contribute to the post-adolescent onset of schizophrenia endophenotypes. Furthermore, they demonstrate a causal, potentially therapeutic, role for PFC interneuron-driven γ oscillations in cognitive domains at the core of schizophrenia.

PMID:
25754826
PMCID:
PMC4503262
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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