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J Nutr Educ Behav. 2015 Mar-Apr;47(2):143-55.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jneb.2014.12.002.

Impact of non-diet approaches on attitudes, behaviors, and health outcomes: a systematic review.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, California State University, Chico, Chico, CA. Electronic address: declifford@csuchico.edu.
2
Family, Consumer & Nutrition Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL.
3
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, California State University, Chico, Chico, CA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the overall effect of non-diet, weight-neutral interventions on factors such as weight, biochemical measures, food and activity behavior, body image, and mental health.

DESIGN:

Systematic review of intervention literature.

SETTING:

Group classes in community and worksite settings (14 studies), and individual counseling (1) and online education (1) in college settings.

PARTICIPANTS:

Eighteen research articles (representing 16 studies) evaluating non-diet interventions using quasi-experimental and randomized study designs with either a comparison or control group.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Anthropometric, physiological, psychological, and dietary intake.

ANALYSIS:

Systematic search of 168 articles and review of 18 articles meeting inclusionary criteria.

RESULTS:

Non-diet interventions resulted in statistically significant improvements in disordered eating patterns, self-esteem, and depression. None of the interventions resulted in significant weight gain or worsening of blood pressure, blood glucose, or cholesterol, and in 2 studies biochemical measures improved significantly compared with the control or diet group. Primary limitations were inconsistent definitions of non-diet approaches and the use of different assessment instruments for measuring outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

Because of the long-term ineffectiveness of weight-focused interventions, the psychological improvements seen in weight-neutral, non-diet interventions warrant further investigation.

KEYWORDS:

body image; eating disorders; mental health; non-diet; overweight; weight management

PMID:
25754299
DOI:
10.1016/j.jneb.2014.12.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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