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Sci Rep. 2015 Mar 10;5:8961. doi: 10.1038/srep08961.

Electrodeposition of ZnO window layer for an all-atmospheric fabrication process of chalcogenide solar cell.

Author information

1
1] EDF R&D, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou Cedex, France [2] IRDEP, Institute of Research and Development on Photovoltaic Energy, UMR 7174 CNRS EDF Chimie ParisTech, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou Cedex, France.
2
1] CNRS, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou Cedex, France [2] IRDEP, Institute of Research and Development on Photovoltaic Energy, UMR 7174 CNRS EDF Chimie ParisTech, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou Cedex, France.
3
LPN, Laboratoire for Photonics and Nanostructures, UPR 20 CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis, France.
4
NEXCIS Photovoltaic Technology, 13790 Rousset, France.

Abstract

This paper presents the low cost electrodeposition of a transparent and conductive chlorine doped ZnO layer with performances comparable to that produced by standard vacuum processes. First, an in-depth study of the defect physics by ab-initio calculation shows that chlorine is one of the best candidates to dope the ZnO. This result is experimentally confirmed by a complete optical analysis of the ZnO layer deposited in a chloride rich solution. We demonstrate that high doping levels (>10(20) cm(-3)) and mobilities (up to 20 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) can be reached by insertion of chlorine in the lattice. The process developed in this study has been applied on a CdS/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 p-n junction produced in a pilot line by a non vacuum process, to be tested as solar cell front contact deposition method. As a result efficiency of 14.3% has been reached opening the way of atmospheric production of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 solar cell.

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