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Comput Struct Biotechnol J. 2015 Feb 10;13:153-9. doi: 10.1016/j.csbj.2015.01.003. eCollection 2015.

Antiviral Drug- and Multidrug Resistance in Cytomegalovirus Infected SCT Patients.

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Institute of Medical Virology and Epidemiology of Viral Diseases, University Hospital of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.


In pediatric and adult patients after stem cell transplantation (SCT) disseminated infections caused by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause life threatening diseases. For treatment, the three antivirals ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet (PFA) and cidofovir (CDV) are approved and most frequently used. Resistance to all of these antiviral drugs may induce a severe problem in this patient cohort. Responsible for resistance phenomena are mutations in the HCMV phosphotransferase-gene (UL97) and the polymerase-gene (UL54). Most frequently mutations in the UL97-gene are associated with resistance to GCV. Resistance against all three drugs is associated to mutations in the UL54-gene. Monitoring of drug resistance by genotyping is mostly done by PCR-based Sanger sequencing. For phenotyping with cell culture the isolation of HCMV is a prerequisite. The development of multidrug resistance with mutation in both genes is rare, but it is often associated with a fatal outcome. The manifestation of multidrug resistance is mostly associated with combined UL97/UL54-mutations. Normally, mutations in the UL97 gene occur initially followed by UL54 mutation after therapy switch. The appearance of UL54-mutation alone without any detection of UL97-mutation is rare. Interestingly, in a number of patients the UL97 mutation could be detected in specific compartments exclusively and not in blood.


Antivirals; Cytomegalovirus; HCMV; Multidrug resistance; Stem cell transplantation

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