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J Exp Biol. 2015 May;218(Pt 9):1373-85. doi: 10.1242/jeb.108043. Epub 2015 Mar 6.

Unsteady turbulent boundary layers in swimming rainbow trout.

Author information

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Systems, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, Tampere FI-33101, Finland kazutaka.yanase@gmail.com.
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Systems, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, Tampere FI-33101, Finland.

Abstract

The boundary layers of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, swimming at 1.02±0.09 L s(-1) (mean±s.d., N=4), were measured by the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique at a Reynolds number of 4×10(5). The boundary layer profile showed unsteadiness, oscillating above and beneath the classical logarithmic law of the wall with body motion. Across the entire surface regions that were measured, local Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, which is the distance that is perpendicular to the fish surface through which the boundary layer momentum flows at free-stream velocity, were greater than the critical value of 320 for the laminar-to-turbulent transition. The skin friction was dampened on the convex surface while the surface was moving towards a free-stream flow and increased on the concave surface while retreating. These observations contradict the result of a previous study using different species swimming by different methods. Boundary layer compression accompanied by an increase in local skin friction was not observed. Thus, the overall results may not support absolutely the Bone-Lighthill boundary layer thinning hypothesis that the undulatory motions of swimming fish cause a large increase in their friction drag because of the compression of the boundary layer. In some cases, marginal flow separation occurred on the convex surface in the relatively anterior surface region, but the separated flow reattached to the fish surface immediately downstream. Therefore, we believe that a severe impact due to induced drag components (i.e. pressure drag) on the swimming performance, an inevitable consequence of flow separation, was avoided.

KEYWORDS:

Boundary layer; Lateral line; Oncorhynchus mykiss; Particle image velocimetry; Skin friction; Swimming performance

PMID:
25750412
DOI:
10.1242/jeb.108043
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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