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Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2015 Jul;7(4):321-31. doi: 10.4168/aair.2015.7.4.321. Epub 2015 Mar 5.

Local immunoglobulin e in the nasal mucosa: clinical implications.

Author information

1
Upper Airways Research Laboratory, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
2
Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
3
Upper Airways Research Laboratory, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.; Division of ENT Diseases, Clintec, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
4
Upper Airways Research Laboratory, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. Philippe.gevaert@ugent.be.

Abstract

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) can be highly elevated in the airway mucosa independently of IgE serum levels and atopic status. Mostly, systemic markers are assessed to investigate inflammation in airway disease for research or clinical practice. A more accurate but more cumbersome approach to determine inflammation at the target organ would be to evaluate markers locally. We review evidence for local production of IgE in allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences in clinical practice are discussed. We describe that the airway mucosa has the intrinsic capability to produce IgE. Moreover, not only do IgE-positive B cells reside within the mucosa, but all tools are present locally for affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation (SHM), clonal expansion, and class switch recombination to IgE. Recognizing local IgE in the absence of systemic IgE has diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of local IgE in patients with a history of AR or CRSwNP.

KEYWORDS:

allergic rhinitis; chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps; diagnostics; local IgE; local allergic rhinitis; treatment

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