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Biotechnol Adv. 2015 May-Aug;33(3-4):343-57. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.01.013. Epub 2015 Mar 3.

Natural antifouling compounds: Effectiveness in preventing invertebrate settlement and adhesion.

Author information

1
CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: jalmeida@ciimar.up.pt.
2
CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal; Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4069-007 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: vmvascon@fc.up.pt.

Abstract

Biofouling represents a major economic issue regarding maritime industries and also raise important environmental concern. International legislation is restricting the use of biocidal-based antifouling (AF) coatings, and increasing efforts have been applied in the search for environmentally friendly AF agents. A wide diversity of natural AF compounds has been described for their ability to inhibit the settlement of macrofouling species. However poor information on the specific AF targets was available before the application of different molecular approaches both on invertebrate settlement strategies and bioadhesive characterization and also on the mechanistic effects of natural AF compounds. This review focuses on the relevant information about the main invertebrate macrofouler species settlement and bioadhesive mechanisms, which might help in the understanding of the reported effects, attributed to effective and non-toxic natural AF compounds towards this macrofouling species. It also aims to contribute to the elucidation of promising biotechnological strategies in the development of natural effective environmentally friendly AF paints.

KEYWORDS:

Antifouling modes of action; Biofouling; Invertebrate adhesive mechanisms; Larval settlement; Natural antifouling compounds

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