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Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015 Jul;72(13):2475-89. doi: 10.1007/s00018-015-1876-4. Epub 2015 Mar 8.

Inflammation: a culprit for vascular calcification in atherosclerosis and diabetes.

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University of Lyon, ICBMS UMR CNRS 5246, B√Ętiment Raulin, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69622, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.


It is today acknowledged that aging is associated with a low-grade chronic inflammatory status, and that inflammation exacerbates age-related diseases such as osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Vascular calcification is a complication that also occurs during aging, in particular in association with atherosclerosis and T2DM. Recent studies provided compelling evidence that vascular calcification is associated with inflammatory status and is enhanced by inflammatory cytokines. In the present review, we propose on one hand to highlight the most important and recent findings on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of vascular inflammation in atherosclerosis and T2DM. On the other hand, we will present the effects of inflammatory mediators on the trans-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cell and on the deposition of crystals. Since vascular calcification significantly impacts morbidity and mortality in affected individuals, a better understanding of its induction and development will pave the way to develop new therapeutic strategies.

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