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Bioresour Technol. 2015 May;183:221-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.02.035. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

Development and characterization of activated hydrochars from orange peels as potential adsorbents for emerging organic contaminants.

Author information

1
Programa de Investigación y Desarrollo de Fuentes Alternativas de Materias Primas y Energía (PINMATE), Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Intendente Güiraldes 2620, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA Buenos Aires, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires, Argentina.
2
Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz, Spain.
3
Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz, Spain. Electronic address: sroman@unex.es.
4
Programa de Investigación y Desarrollo de Fuentes Alternativas de Materias Primas y Energía (PINMATE), Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Intendente Güiraldes 2620, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA Buenos Aires, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires, Argentina; Cátedra de Farmacotecnia II, Departamento de Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Abstract

Activated hydrochars obtained from the hydrothermal carbonization of orange peels (Citrus sinensis) followed by various thermochemical processing were assessed as adsorbents for emerging contaminants in water. Thermal activation under flows of CO2 or air as well as chemical activation with phosphoric acid were applied to the hydrochars. Their characteristics were analyzed and related to their ability to uptake three pharmaceuticals (diclofenac sodium, salicylic acid and flurbiprofen) considered as emerging contaminants. The hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent activations promoted substantial chemical transformations which affected the surface properties of the activated hydrochars; they exhibited specific surface areas ranging from 300 to ∼620 m(2)/g. Morphological characterization showed the development of coral-like microspheres dominating the surface of most hydrochars. Their ability to adsorb the three pharmaceuticals selected was found largely dependent on whether the molecules were ionized or in their neutral form and on the porosity developed by the new adsorbents.

KEYWORDS:

Activated hydrochars; Emerging contaminants; Hydrothermal carbonization; Orange peels

PMID:
25742754
DOI:
10.1016/j.biortech.2015.02.035
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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