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Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015 Feb;110(1):23-47. doi: 10.1590/0074-02760140266. Epub 2015 Feb 13.

An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors.

Author information

1
Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fiocruz, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.
2
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
3
Instituto Leônidas e Maria Deane, Fiocruz, Manaus, AM, Brasil.
4
Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, AM, Brasil.
5
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, AM, Brasil.
6
Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Abstract

In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Anopheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence.

PMID:
25742262
PMCID:
PMC4371216
DOI:
10.1590/0074-02760140266
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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